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221261 (in Polish) Burek, Edward (ed.) (2000 "Sonderaktion Krakau in Encyklopedia Krakowa, Kraków, PWM. Both regimes endorsed a systematic program of genocide.' a b c d e f g Wrobel, Piotr, (1999 The Devil's Playground: Poland in World War. 269272 Madajczyk 1970,. . Cornis-Pope, Neubauer 2004,. . The multicultural nation was no more. 58 Piotrowski 1997,. . 24 According to one estimate, by war's end 43 of the infrastructure of Poland's educational and research institutions and 14 of its museums had been destroyed. 236237 a b Salmonowicz 1994,. . The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property, New York: Harry. Within ten to twenty years, the Polish territories under German occupation were to be entirely cleared of ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists. 41 The educational curriculum was censored; subjects such as literature, history and geography were removed. 27 According to another, only 105 of pre-war Poland's 175 museums survived the war, and just 33 of these institutions were able to reopen. 71 Soviet-inspired caricatures published in Polish in Lwów, September 1940, excoriating Polish "enemies of the state"businessmen, army officers, aristocrats All publications and media were subjected to censorship. 48 During the war, Warsaw libraries lost about a million volumes, or 30 of their collections. 137 Madajczyk 1970,. .

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54 Censorship at first targeted books that were considered to be "serious including scientific and educational texts and texts that were thought to promote Polish patriotism; only fiction that was free of anti-German overtones was permitted. 22 48 In 1940, several German-controlled printing houses began operating in occupied Poland, publishing items such as Polish-German dictionaries and antisemitic and anticommunist novels. 101 Tajne Wojskowe Zakłady Wydawnicze (Secret Military Publishing House) of Jerzy Rutkowski (subordinated to the Armia Krajowa) was probably the largest underground publisher in the world. The Canadian Foundation for Polish Studies of the Polish Institute of Arts Sciences. 135 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . 23 Over 516,000 individual art pieces were taken, including 2,800 paintings by European painters; 11,000 works by Polish painters; 1,400 sculptures, 75,000 manuscripts, 25,000 maps, and 90,000 books (including over 20,000 printed before 1800 as well as hundreds of thousands of other objects of artistic and historic value. 115 Polish underground artists included Eryk Lipiński, Stanisław Miedza-Tomaszewski, Stanisław Ostoja-Chrostowski, and Konstanty Maria Sopoćko. Żuchowskiego, Toruń ( Sztuka i Kultura,. More than a million Polish citizens were deported to Siberia, 63 64 many to Gulag concentration camps, for years or decades. 295 a b c d e f g h i Madajczyk 1970,. . 72 73 Many Polish writers collaborated with the Soviets, writing pro-Soviet propaganda. 10 Visual artists, including painters and sculptors, were compelled to register with the German government; but their work was generally tolerated by the underground, unless it conveyed propagandist themes. This policy was, however, reversed at timesfirst before the elections in October 1939; 74 and later, after the German conquest of France. In addition to publication of news (from intercepted Western radio transmissions there were hundreds of underground publications dedicated to politics, economics, education, and literature (for example, Sztuka i Naród ).

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arrested or executed on the spot. 138 Polish Ministry of Information, Concise Statistical Year-Book of Poland, London, June 1941,. . 126 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 48 Cinemas, now under the control of the German propaganda machine, saw their programming dominated by Nazi German movies, which were preceded by propaganda newsreels. 49 Some private publishers, including Stefan Kamieński, Zbigniew Mitzner and the Ossolineum publishing house, paid writers for books that would be delivered after the war. 233 (in Polish) Tajna Organizacja Nauczycielska in wiem Encyklopedia. 9 14 The policy was relaxed somewhat in the final years of occupation (194344 in view of German military defeats and the approaching Eastern Front. 70 The Soviet authorities sought to remove all trace of the Polish history of the area now under their control. 41 There was no money for heating of the schools in winter. Nevertheless, underground organizations and individuals in particular the. Retrieved on Kisling 2001,. . 127 Influence on postwar culture edit Rozstrzelanie V (Execution by Firing Squad, V) (1949) by Andrzej Wróblewski, set in German-occupied Poland See also: Cultural representations of the Warsaw Uprising The wartime attempts to destroy Polish culture may have strengthened it instead. Władysław Szpilman ) and artists likewise performed in ghettos and even in concentration camps. A b c d e f Salmonowicz 1994,. .

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  • Polish culture during World War, iI was suppressed by the occupying powers of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were hostile to Poland's people and cultural heritage.
  • Policies aimed at cultural genocide resulted in the deaths of thousands of scholars and artists, and the theft and destruction of innumerable cultural artifacts.
  • The maltreatment of the Poles was one of many ways.
  • Palm Beach Daily News.
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